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Findings of the chemical analysis conducted by Yale University of the crumb rubber tire infill used in synthetic turf and the rubber tire mulch used as surfacing material in toddler playgrounds

The shredded rubber tire playground mulch samples tested were provided by the manufacturer and were purchased in new bags of rubber mulch for use in gardens and playgrounds. The rubber tire infill for synthetic turf fields was obtained as new infill material from installers of synthetic turf fields.  There were 5 samples of infill from 5 different installers of fields and 9 different samples of rubber mulch taken from 9 different unopened bags of playground mulch.

There were 96 chemicals found in 14 samples analyzed.  Half of those chemicals had no government testing on them - so we have no idea whether they are safe or harmful to health.  Of those chemicals found that have had some government testing done on them these are the findings with their health effects.


Carcinogen, toxic to aquatic life

Carcinogen, respiratory irritant and can cause asthma

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Carcinogen, may cause damage to fetuses

Carcinogen, Fluoranthene is one of the US EPA's 16 priority pollutant, A PAH.



Phenol, 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-

Carcinogen  - A PAH

Carcinogen, skin, eye and lung irritan. A Fungicide

Pyrene, 1-methyl-

Carcinogen, eye and skin irritant. Can cause systemic damage to central nervous system.

Carcinogen, toxic to liver and Kidneys, a PAH

Carbon Black
Carbon Black makes up to 20% to 30 % of every tire. It is used as a 
reinforcing filler. Carbon Black is listed as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Carbon Black, as such, was not analyzed by the Yale Study because Carbon Black is made up of  a number of chemicals - some
of which were found in the Yale study.  Carbon Black is not one  chemical -- it is made up of many chemicals - often of petroleum products.
Furthermore, carbon black has no fixed composition, even of the many
compounds it contains.  Carbon black from different sources will have
differing compositions.  In our method, carbon black will register as
a series of substances extracted from it.  There is no carbon black
molecule, it's a mixture.


1,4-Benzenediamine, N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-
Irritant - causes skin and eye irritation, toxic to aquatic life

1,4-Benzenediamine, N-(1-methylethyl)-N'-phenyl-
Irritant - causes skin and eye irritation, toxic to aquatic life

Irritant - causes skin and lung irritantation

2-Dodecen-1-yl(-)succinic anhydride
Irritant - causes eyes, skin and lungs irritation

Irritant - causes irritation to eyes, skin and lungs.

Irritant - causes skin, eye and respiratory irritation. Breathing it can irritate the nose, throat and lungs causing coughing and wheezing.

Benzenamine, 4-octyl-N-(4-octylphenyl)-
Irritant - causes eye and skin irritation

Considered hazardous, very little testing has been done on it.

Benzothiazole, 2-(methylthio)-
Irritant - causes Skin and eye irritation.

Dehydroabietic acid
Toxic to aquatic organisms

Irritant - causes Skin irritation

Hexadecanoic acid, butyl ester
Irritant -  causes eye, skin and lung irritant. Can cause reproductive effects.

Methyl stearate
Irritant - causes eye, skin and lung irritation.

Irritant - causes kin, eye and respiratory irritation

Octadecanoic acid also known as Stearic acid
Irritant - causes skin, eye and respiratory irritation

Oleic Acid
Irritant - causes skin and eye irritation

Phenol, 2,2'-methylenebis[6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-ethyl-
Irritant - causes skin, eye and respiratory irritation

Tetradecanoic acid
Toxic to aquatic organisms. Skin and eye irritant.

Anthracene, 2-methyl-
Acute aquatic toxicity, Not much data available - what there is shows it to be an eye, skin and lung irritant

Anthracene, 9-methyl-
Acute aquatic toxicity, serious eye irritant


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